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【凤凰彩票唯一官方网站】Effective Team Functionin

LanguageDisorders:from Infancy through Adolescence:

The Secrets of Great Teamwork

History[edit&action=edit§ion=1)]

Scrum was first defined as "a flexible, holistic product development strategy where a development team works as a unit to reach a common goal" as opposed to a "traditional, sequential approach" in 1986 by Hirotaka Takeuchi andIkujiro Nonaka in the "New New Product Development Game".[[2]](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scrum_(software_development)#cite_note-2) Takeuchi and Nonaka later argued in "The Knowledge Creating Company"[[3]](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scrum_(software_development)#cite_note-3) that it is a form of "organizational knowledge creation, [...] especially good at bringing about innovation continuously, incrementally and spirally".

【凤凰彩票唯一官方网站】Effective Team Functioning。The authors described a new approach to commercial product development that would increase speed and flexibility, based on case studies from manufacturing firms in the automotive, photocopier and printer industries.[[4]](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scrum_(software_development)#cite_note-Takeuchi-4) They called this the holistic or rugby approach, as the whole process is performed by one cross-functional team across multiple overlapping phases, where the team "tries to go the distance as a unit, passing the ball back and forth".[[4]](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scrum_(software_development)#cite_note-Takeuchi-4)

In rugby football, a scrum) refers to the manner of restarting the game after a minor infraction. In the early 1990s, Ken Schwaber used what would become Scrum at his company, Advanced Development Methods, and Jeff Sutherland, with John Scumniotales and Jeff McKenna, developed a similar approach at Easel Corporation, and were the first to refer to it using the single word Scrum.[[5]](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scrum_(software_development)#cite_note-autogenerated1-5)

In 1995, Sutherland and Schwaber jointly presented a paper describing the Scrum methodology at the Business Object Design and Implementation Workshop held as part of Object-Oriented Programming, Systems, Languages & Applications '95 (OOPSLA '95) in Austin, Texas, its first public presentation.[[6]](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scrum_(software_development)#cite_note-6) Schwaber and Sutherland collaborated during the following years to merge the above writings, their experiences, and industry best practices into what is now known as Scrum.

In 2001, Schwaber worked with Mike Beedle to describe the method in the book Agile Software Development with Scrum.[[7]](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scrum_(software_development)#cite_note-7)

Its approach to planning and managing projects is to bring decision-making authority to the level of operation properties and certainties.[[8]](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scrum_(software_development)#cite_note-schwaber-8)

Although the word is not an acronym, some companies implementing the process have been known to spell it with capital letters as SCRUM. This may be due to one of Ken Schwaber's early papers, which capitalized SCRUM in the title.[[8]](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scrum_(software_development)#cite_note-schwaber-8)

Hybridization of scrum is common as scrum does not cover the whole product development lifecycle; therefore, organizations find the need to add in additional processes to create a more comprehensive implementation. For example, at the start of the project, organizations commonly add process guidance on requirements gathering and prioritization, initial high-level design, and budget and schedule forecasting.

  1. Types of Teams:

Effective Team Functioning


The Individualized Family Service Plan is intended to be developed and implemented by a team of people, including the family and community service providers from various agencies

The IFSP process is most effective when all members appreciate the team model that is being used by the majority of the team members. During the IFSP planning process, the team members should engage in an explicit discussion of how the team should "best" operate in order to be most effective.

Listening, Speaking, Reading, Writing, and Communicating

Martine Haas Mark Mortensen

Roles[edit&action=edit§ion=2)]

There are three core roles[[9]](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scrum_(software_development)#cite_note-9) and a range of ancillary roles. Core roles are often referred to as pigs and ancillary roles as chickens (after the story The Chicken and the Pig).

The core roles are those committed to the project in the Scrum process—they are the ones producing the product (objective of the project). They represent the scrum team.

Product Owner
The Product Owner represents the stakeholders and is the voice of the customer. He or she is accountable for ensuring that the team delivers value to the business. The Product Owner writes (or has the team write) customer-centric items (typically user stories), ranks and prioritizes them, and adds them to the product backlog#Product_Backlog). Scrum teams should have one Product Owner, and while they may also be a member of the development team, this role should not be combined with that of the Scrum Master. In an enterprise environment, though, the Product Owner is often combined with the role of Project Manager as they have the best visibility regarding the scope of work (products).

Development Team
The Development Team is responsible for delivering potentially shippable product increments at the end of each Sprint (the Sprint Goal). A Team is made up of 7 /- 2 individuals with cross-functional skills who do the actual work (analyse, design, develop, test, technical communication, document, etc.). The Development Team in Scrum is self-organizing, even though there may be some level of interface with project management offices (PMOs).

Scrum Master
Scrum is facilitated by a Scrum Master, who is accountable for removing impediments to the ability of the team to deliver the sprint goal/deliverables. The Scrum Master is not the team leader, but acts as a buffer between the team and any distracting influences. The Scrum Master ensures that the Scrum process is used as intended. The Scrum Master is the enforcer of the rules of Scrum, often chairs key meetings, and challenges the team to improve. The role has also been referred to as a servant-leader to reinforce these dual perspectives. The Scrum Master differs from a Project Manager in that the latter may have people management responsibilities unrelated to the role of Scrum Master. The Scrum Master role excludes any such additional people responsibilities.

Although other roles may be encountered in real projects, Scrum does not define any other roles.[[10]](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scrum_(software_development)#cite_note-10)

• Quality circles

Team Models

Teams can exist for purposes of assessment, treatment/intervention or evaluation. One team may address all three functions, or new members may be appointed/invited to constitute new teams for different functions or different points in time. Teams appear to operate in predominately one of the following three models.

RheaPaul,PhD, CCC-SLPProfessor, Yale Child Study Center

FROM THE JUNE 2016 ISSUE

Sprint[edit&action=edit§ion=3)]

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The Scrum process

A sprint is the basic unit of development in Scrum. The sprint is a "timeboxed" effort; that is, it is restricted to a specific duration.[[11]](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scrum_(software_development)#cite_note-Sprint_2009-11) The duration is fixed in advance for each sprint and is normally between one week and one month, although two weeks is typical.[[8]](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scrum_(software_development)#cite_note-schwaber-8)

Each sprint is preceded by a planning meeting, where the tasks for the sprint are identified and an estimated commitment for the sprint goal is made, and followed by a review or retrospective meeting,[[5]](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scrum_(software_development)#cite_note-autogenerated1-5) where the progress is reviewed and lessons for the next sprint are identified.[*[citation needed](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed)*]

-Usually involve 6-12 employees

Multidisciplinary Team

A group of people who perform tasks (e.g., educational, medical, familial) independent of one another, with individual expertise, and provide services directly to client/family/child with little coordination or consultation with each other.

    • More than one person is providing input. Expertise can be tapped.
  • Disadvantages

  • No communication between players can result in duplication or gaps in services.

Note: The Federal requirement for Multidisciplinary Team evaluation implies at least this model of team functioning. However, interdisciplinary or transdisciplinary models may be employed for this function.

New Haven, Connecticut

Today’s teams are different from the teams of the past: They’re far more diverse, dispersed, digital, and dynamic (with frequent changes in membership). But while teams face new hurdles, their success still hinges on a core set of fundamentals for group collaboration.

Meetings[edit&action=edit§ion=4)]

-Meet regularly to generate ideas that can increase productivity or product quality but usually do     not have formal authority (managers make final decision)

Interdisciplinary Team

A group of people who perform tasks independent of one another, with individual expertise, but who coordinate their efforts with one another to maximize the benefits for the client/family/child and minimize the duplication of procedures/services. Coordination usually takes the form of "staffings" and/or meetings generally that include the family

    • Staffings/meetings and synthesized reports reduce likelihood of duplication and overlap in services. Members stay aware of other service provider's goals/priorities. Problem-solving can be pursued with expertise from a variety of players.
  • Disadvantages

  • For families with high needs, the number of team members can become overwhelming. Schedules for individual sessions/meetings, the individual goals/expectations and different treatment philosophies can burden family and child. Coordination of staffings/meetings are difficult given the number of people and need for larger meeting spaces. Communication between members typically relies on the infrequent staffing/meeting/report or family member as messenger.

Note: A decision to use an interdisciplinary team model might be based on:

  • Family/child's need for multiple direct providers from an array of disciplines

  • Child's needs are limited to 1-2 unrelated areas (i.e., speech, health)

  • Family/child's needs are limited to 1-2 areas where professional expertise and agency boundaries make role-release less than effective/efficient service (i.e., speech, child protective services)

  • Child's needs are limited to few domains and staffing and scheduling are not a challenge for agencies employing the needed providers.

Courtenay F.Norbury, PhD

The basics of team effectiveness were identified by J. Richard Hackman, a pioneer in the field of organizational behavior who began studying teams in the 1970s. In more than 40 years of research, he uncovered a groundbreaking insight: What matters most to collaboration is not the personalities, attitudes, or behavioral styles of team members. Instead, what teams need to thrive are certain “enabling conditions.” In our own studies, we’ve found that three of Hackman’s conditions—a compelling direction, a strong structure, and a supportive context—continue to be particularly critical to team success. In fact, today those three requirements demand more attention than ever. But we’ve also seen that modern teams are vulnerable to two corrosive problems—“us versus them” thinking and incomplete information. Overcoming those pitfalls requires a fourth critical condition: a shared mindset.

Daily Scrum[edit&action=edit§ion=5)]

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A daily scrum meeting in the computing room. This choice of location lets the team start on time.

Each day during the sprint, a project team communication meeting occurs. This is called a daily scrum, or the daily standup. This meeting has specific guidelines:

  • All members of the development team come prepared with the updates for the meeting.
  • The meeting starts precisely on time even if some development team members are missing.
  • The meeting should happen at the same location and same time every day.
  • The meeting length is set (timeboxed) to 15 minutes.
  • All are welcome, but normally only the core roles speak.

During the meeting, each team member answers three questions:[[12]](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scrum_(software_development)#cite_note-schwaberp135-12)

  • What have you done since yesterday?
  • What are you planning to do today?
  • Any impediments/stumbling blocks? Any impediment/stumbling block identified in this meeting is documented by the Scrum Master and worked towards resolution outside of this meeting. No detailed discussions shall happen in this meeting.

-Mixed evidence of success – often successful in short term but not long term

Transdisciplinary Team

A group of people who perform tasks collaboratively by sharing not only information, but roles. Mutually agreed upon priority goals are developed and information, knowledge, and skills are transferred across disciplinary boundaries. Periodic staffings/meetings and frequent consultations (monthly at least) provide opportunities for exchange of information and training as various members assume a primary facilitator role for addressing the goals. All team members are considered 'active' and must be available to meet with others on the team at least monthly and to deliver service directly as needed. Direct service by other members can continue but less frequently, if the primary facilitator is/are capable of addressing those discipline-related needs.

    • For families/children with many needs, the number of people providing direct service to family and child is limited and manageable for family. For families/children with needs in only 1-2 areas, the primary need could be addressed more intensively. Family members are viewed as capable team members and supported in their efforts to address goals. Encourages focus on priority goals only at any one time. Attention to child as whole is achieved by integrating services into functional activities and provision by fewer providers.
  • Disadvantages

  • Determining "primary" provider for a family/child with more needs can be challenging. For larger teams, establishing frequent communications for exchange of information can be challenging and require a shift away from exclusive use of face-to-face dialogue. Members must have expertise to share and know how to coach others to do as they would do. Since members may not always trust others to address what they believe is their area of expertise, gaps in service can occur. Primary providers with limited experiences or training may feel overwhelmed and provide ineffective services. Family needs may be a challenge for one provider who has more child expertise.

Note: A decision to use an interdisciplinary team model might be based on:

  • Parent request/need for fewer providers or more integrated services

  • Limited/restricted access to specialized providers in region (i.e., SLP, PT, OT, Nurse) due to distance or staffing

  • Slow/intermittent progress due to health status or family stressors

  • Priority goal for period of time necessitates intensive attention by one discipline (i.e., PT following surgery

  • Developmental delays are limited to primarily 1-2 integrated domains (i.e., speech-cognition or movement-adaptive)

  • Team members ability to meet regularly (electronic or face-to-face) to share expertise and consult

For more information about the Primary Service Provider model, there are two documents developed by The Family, Infant and Preschool Program Center for the Advanced Study of Excellence in Early Childhood and Family Support Practices.

  • Checklist for Implementing a Primary-Coach Approach to Teaming

  • Characteristics of Primary Coach Approach to Teaming in Early Childhood Programs

Senior Research FellowDepartment of Psychology Royal Holloway University of London London,England

About the Research

Backlog refinement (grooming)[edit&action=edit§ion=6)]

This is the process of creating stories, decomposing stories into smaller ones when they are too large, refining the acceptance criteria for individual stories, prioritizing stories on the product backlog and sizing the existing stories in the product backlog using effort/points. During each sprint the team should spend time doing product backlog refinement to keep a pool of stories ready for the next sprint.

  • Meetings should not be longer than an hour.
  • Meeting does not include breaking stories into tasks.
  • The team can decide how many meetings are needed per week.
  • Though everything can be done in a single meeting, these are commonly broken into two types of meetings for efficiency:
  1. The refinement meeting, where the product owner and stakeholders create and refine stories on the product backlog.
  2. The planning poker meeting, where the team sizes the stories on the product backlog to make them ready for the next sprint.

• Project teams

Team Functioning Requires

Up-to-date knowledge and skill in own discipline

Knowledge of each other's expertise/past experiences

Time together to develop at least adequate work relationships based on trust and respect

Systematic (known, routine, flexible) communication

  • Face-to-face

Mutually-agreed upon goals/agenda for every contact/interaction

Willingness of all members to focus on the family/child's needs and not their own agenda

Confidence in each member for what they can offer to the team process/goals

Comfort in asking for help and offering help

Willingness to ask for clarification

Capable of occasionally filling in for absent team member on some tasks

Good communication skills for listening, interviewing, explaining, coaching

Willingness and skill to engage in mutual problem-solving

pages 215-238

Over the past 15 years, we’ve studied teams and groups in a variety of contemporary settings. We’ve conducted nine large research projects in global organizations, undertaking more than 300 interviews and 4,200 surveys with team leaders and managers. The teams involved worked on projects in product development, sales, operations, finance, R&D, senior management, and more, in a wide range of industries, including software, professional services, manufacturing, natural resources, and consumer products. In addition, we have conducted executive education sessions on team effectiveness for thousands of team leaders and members; their stories and experiences have also shaped our thinking.

Scrum of Scrums[edit&action=edit§ion=7)]

Each day normally after the Daily Scrum:

  • These meetings allow clusters of teams to discuss their work, focusing especially on areas of overlap and integration.
  • A designated person from each team attends.

The agenda will be the same as the Daily Scrum, plus the following four questions:

  • What has your team done since we last met?
  • What will your team do before we meet again?
  • Is anything slowing your team down or getting in their way?
  • Are you about to put something in another team's way?

-Created to solve a particular problem and are disbanded after that problem is solved

Helpful Teaming

Team Member's Experience

Team Member's Attitude or Confidence

Helping Style to use

Less than yoursNegative or lowOffer help; show them how to do the task. Follow-up and encourage them.HighCoach when invited and provide observation and feedback. Sell your ideas by giving rationale for your suggestion.Same/similar to yours or more than yoursNegative or lowSupport/encourage them. Educate them on the why or how of the new task.HighDelegate. Collaborate. Problem-solve together.

developing family-centered clinician practice

The key takeaway for leaders is this: Though teams face an increasingly complicated set of challenges, a relatively small number of factors have an outsized impact on their success. Managers can achieve big returns if they understand what those factors are and focus on getting them right.

Sprint planning meeting[edit&action=edit§ion=8)]

At the beginning of the sprint cycle (every 7–30 days), a "Sprint planning meeting" is held:[[11]](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scrum_(software_development)#cite_note-Sprint_2009-11)[[13]](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scrum_(software_development)#cite_note-schwaberp133-13)

  • Select what work is to be done
  • Prepare the Sprint Backlog that details the time it will take to do that work, with the entire team
  • Identify and communicate how much of the work is likely to be done during the current sprint
  • Eight-hour time limit
    • (1st four hours) Entire team:[[14]](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scrum_(software_development)#cite_note-14) dialog for prioritizing the Product Backlog
    • (2nd four hours) Development Team:[[15]](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scrum_(software_development)#cite_note-15) hashing out a plan for the Sprint, resulting in the Sprint Backlog

• Production teams

first encounter with family

The Enabling Conditions

End of cycle[edit&action=edit§ion=9)]

At the end of a sprint cycle, two meetings are held: the "Sprint Review Meeting" and the "Sprint Retrospective".

At the Sprint Review Meeting:[[16]](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scrum_(software_development)#cite_note-schwaberp137-16)

  • Review the work that was completed and the planned work that was not completed
  • Present the completed work to the stakeholders (a.k.a. "the demo")
  • Incomplete work cannot be demonstrated
  • Four-hour time limit

At the Sprint Retrospective:[[17]](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scrum_(software_development)#cite_note-schwaberp138-17)

  • All team members reflect on the past sprint
  • Make continuous process improvements
  • Two main questions are asked in the sprint retrospective: What went well during the sprint? What could be improved in the next sprint?
  • Three-hour time limit
  • This meeting is facilitated by the Scrum Master

-Front-line employees that make tangible outputs such as cars, TV’s, cell phones, etc.

allow and encourage family members to describe interests before describing services

Let’s explore in greater detail how to create a climate that helps diverse, dispersed, digital, dynamic teams—what we like to call 4-D teams—attain high performance.

Artifacts[edit&action=edit§ion=10)]

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challengedand removed(March 2013)

-Includes autonomous work groups, where groups are micro-organizations that manage themselves.

provide choices and allow family to make decision.

Compelling direction.

Product Backlog[edit&action=edit§ion=11)]

The product backlog is an ordered list of "requirements" that is maintained for a product. It consists of features, bug fixes, non-functional requirements, etc. - whatever needs to be done in order to successfully deliver a working software system. The items are ordered by the Product Owner based on considerations like risk, business value, dependencies, date needed, etc. The features added to the backlog are commonly written in story format (See terminology below). The product backlog is the "What" that will be built, sorted in the relative order in which it should be built. It is open and editable by anyone, but the Product Owner is ultimately responsible for ordering the stories on the backlog for the Development Team. The product backlog contains rough estimates of both business value and development effort, these values are often stated in story points using a rounded Fibonacci sequence. Those estimates help the Product Owner to gauge the timeline and may influence ordering of backlog items. For example, if the "add spellcheck" and "add table support" features have the same business value, the one with the smallest development effort will probably have higher priority, because the ROI (Return on Investment) is higher.

The Product Backlog and business value of each listed item is the responsibility of the Product Owner. The estimated effort to complete each backlog item is, however, determined by the Development Team. The team contributes by estimating Items and User-Stories, either in Story-points or in estimated hours.

• Virtual teams

avoid being too nosy

The foundation of every great team is a direction that energizes, orients, and engages its members. Teams cannot be inspired if they don’t know what they’re working toward and don’t have explicit goals. Those goals should be challenging (modest ones don’t motivate) but not so difficult that the team becomes dispirited. They also must be consequential: People have to care about achieving a goal, whether because they stand to gain extrinsic rewards, like recognition, pay, and promotions; or intrinsic rewards, such as satisfaction and a sense of meaning.

Sprint Backlog[edit&action=edit§ion=12)]

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A scrum task board

The sprint backlog is the list of work the Development Team must address during the next sprint. The list is derived by selecting stories/features from the top of the product backlog until the Development Team feels it has enough work to fill the sprint. This is done by the Development Team asking "Can we also do this?" and adding stories/features to the sprint backlog. The Development Team should keep in mind the velocity of its previous Sprints (total story points completed from each of the last sprint's stories) when selecting stories/features for the new sprint, and use this number as a guide line of how much "effort" they can complete.

The stories/features are broken down into tasks by the Development Team, which, as a best practice, should normally be between four and sixteen hours of work. With this level of detail the Development Team understands exactly what to do, and potentially, anyone can pick a task from the list. Tasks on the sprint backlog are never assigned; rather, tasks are signed up for by the team members as needed during the daily scrum, according to the set priority and the Development Team member skills. This promotes self-organization of the Development Team, and developer buy-in.

The sprint backlog is the property of the Development Team, and all included estimates are provided by the Development Team. Often an accompanying task board is used to see and change the state of the tasks of the current sprint, like "to do", "in progress" and "done".

Once a Sprint's Product Backlog is committed, no additional functionality can be added to the Sprint except by the team. Once a Sprint has been delivered, the Product Backlog is analyzed and reprioritized, if necessary, and the next set of functionality is selected for the next Sprint.

-Widely dispersed members working together towards a common goal.

let family know what information you have received from other professional and ask whether they feel it is accurate and unbiased.

On 4-D teams, direction is especially crucial because it’s easy for far-flung members from dissimilar backgrounds to hold different views of the group’s purpose. Consider one global team we studied. All the members agreed that serving their client was their goal, but what that meant varied across locations. Members in Norway equated it with providing a product of the absolute highest quality—no matter what the cost. Their colleagues in the UK, however, felt that if the client needed a solution that was only 75% accurate, the less precise solution would better serve that client. Solving this tension required a frank discussion to reach consensus on how the team as a whole defined its objectives.

Increment[edit&action=edit§ion=13)]

The increment is the sum of all the Product Backlog Items completed during a sprint and all previous sprints. At the end of a sprint, the Increment must be done according to the Scrum Team's definition of done. The increment must be in usable condition regardless of whether the Product Owner decides to actually release it.

-Can interact either synchronously (at the same time) or asynchronously (at different times, such as using email).

reaffirm confidentiality

Strong structure.

Burn down[edit&action=edit§ion=14)]

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A sample burn down chart for a completed iteration, showing remaining effort and tasks for each of the 21 work days of the 1-month iteration

Main article: burn down chart

The sprint burn down chart is a publicly displayed chart showing remaining work in the sprint backlog. Updated every day, it gives a simple view of the sprint progress. It also provides quick visualizations for reference. There are also other types of burndown, for example the release burndown chart that shows the amount of work left to complete the target commitment for a Product Release (normally spanning through multiple iterations) and the alternative release burndown chart,[[18]](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scrum_(software_development)#cite_note-18) which basically does the same, but clearly shows scope changes to Release Content, by resetting the baseline.

It should not be confused with an earned value chart.

  1. advantage of virtual team :

respond quickly and don't push familiies off until "later"

Teams also need the right mix and number of members, optimally designed tasks and processes, and norms that discourage destructive behavior and promote positive dynamics.

Terminology[edit&action=edit§ion=15)]

The following terminology is used in Scrum:[[19]](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scrum_(software_development)#cite_note-schwaberp141-143-19)

Scrum Team
Product Owner, Scrum Master and Development Team

Product Owner
The person responsible for maintaining the Product Backlog by representing the interests of the stakeholders, and ensuring the value of the work the Development Team does.

Scrum Master
The person responsible for the Scrum process, making sure it is used correctly and maximizing its benefits.

Development Team
A cross-functional group of people responsible for delivering potentially shippable increments of Product at the end of every Sprint.

Sprint burn down chart
Daily progress for a Sprint over the sprint's length.

Release burn down chart
Sprint level progress of completed stories in the Product Backlog.

Product backlog
A prioritized list of high-level requirements.

Sprint backlog
A prioritized list of tasks to be completed during the sprint.

Sprint
A time period (typically 1–4 weeks) in which development occurs on a set of backlog items that the team has committed to. Also commonly referred to as a Time-box or iteration.

(User) Story
A feature that is added to the backlog is commonly referred to as a story and has a specific suggested structure. The structure of a story is: "As a <user type> I want to <do some action> so that <desired result>" This is done so that the development team can identify the user, action and required result in a request and is a simple way of writing requests that anyone can understand. Example: As a wiki user I want a tools menu on the edit screen so that I can easily apply font formatting. A story is an independent, negotiable, valuable, estimable, small, testable requirement ("INVEST"). Despite being independent, i.e., they have no direct dependencies with other requirements, stories may be clustered into epics when represented on a product roadmap or further down in the backlog.

Theme
A theme is a top-level objective that may span projects and products. Themes may be broken down into sub-themes, which are more likely to be product-specific. Themes can be used at both program and project level to drive strategic alignment and communicate a clear direction.

Epic
An epic is a group of related stories, mainly used in product roadmaps and the backlog for features that have not yet been analyzed enough to break down into component stories, which should be done before bringing it into a sprint so to reduce uncertainty. Epics can also be used at both program and project level.

Spike
A time boxed period used to research a concept and/or create a simple prototype. Spikes can either be planned to take place in between sprints or, for larger teams, a spike might be accepted as one of many sprint delivery objectives. Spikes are often introduced before the delivery of large epics or user stories in order to secure budget, expand knowledge, and/or produce a proof of concept. The duration and objective(s) of a spike will be agreed between the Product Owner and Delivery Team before the start. Unlike sprint commitments, spikes may or may not deliver tangible, shippable, valuable functionality. For example, the objective of a spike might be to successfully reach a decision on a course of action. The spike is over when the time is up, not necessarily when the objective has been delivered.

Tracer Bullet
The tracer bullet is a spike with the current architecture, current technology set, current set of best practices which results in production quality code. It might just be a very narrow implementation of the functionality but is not throw away code. It is of production quality and the rest of the iterations can build on this code. The name has military origins as ammunition that makes the path of the weapon visible, allowing for corrections. Often these implementations are a 'quick shot' through all layers of an application, such as connecting a single form's input field to the back-end, to prove the layers will connect as expected.

Point Scale/Effort/Story points
Relates to an abstract point system, used to discuss the difficulty of the story, without assigning actual hours. The most common scale used is a rounded Fibonacci sequence (1,2,3,5,8,13,20,40,100), although some teams use linear scale (1,2,3,4...), powers of two (1,2,4,8...), and clothes size (XS, S, M, L, XL).[[20]](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scrum_(software_development)#cite_note-scrummethodology.com-20)

Tasks
Added to the story at the beginning of a sprint and broken down into hours. Each task should not exceed 12 hours, but it's common for teams to insist that a task take no more than a day to finish.

Definition of Done (DoD)
The exit-criteria to determine whether a product backlog item is complete. In many cases the DoD requires that all regression tests should be successful.

Velocity
The total effort a team is capable of in a sprint. The number is derived by evaluating the story points completed from the last few sprint's stories/features. This is a guideline for the team and assists them in understanding how many stories they can do in a future sprint.

Impediment
Anything that prevents a team member from performing work as efficiently as possible.[[21]](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scrum_(software_development)#cite_note-21)

Sashimi
A report that something is "done". The definition of "done" may vary from one Scrum team to another, but must be consistent within one team.

Abnormal Termination
The Product Owner can cancel a Sprint if necessary.[[22]](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scrum_(software_development)#cite_note-22) The Product Owner may do so with input from the team, Scrum Master or management. For instance, management may wish to cancel a sprint if external circumstances negate the value of the sprint goal. If a sprint is abnormally terminated, the next step is to conduct a new Sprint planning meeting, where the reason for the termination is reviewed.

Planning Poker
In the Sprint Planning Meeting, the team sits down to estimate its effort for the stories in the backlog. The Product Owner needs these estimates, so that he or she is empowered to effectively prioritize items in the backlog and, as a result, forecast releases based on the team's velocity.[[20]](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scrum_(software_development)#cite_note-scrummethodology.com-20)

ScrumBut
A ScrumBut (or Scrum But) is an exception to the "pure" Scrum methodology, where a team has changed the methodology to adapt it to their own needs.[[23]](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scrum_(software_development)#cite_note-23)[[24]](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scrum_(software_development)#cite_note-24)

Saving time and travel expenses

gathering client and family data

High-performing teams include members with a balance of skills. Every individual doesn’t have to possess superlative technical and social skills, but the team overall needs a healthy dose of both. Diversity in knowledge, views, and perspectives, as well as in age, gender, and race, can help teams be more creative and avoid groupthink.

Scrum-ban[edit&action=edit§ion=16)]

Scrum-ban is a software production model based on Scrum and Kanban). Scrum-ban is especially suited for maintenance projects or (system) projects with frequent and unexpected user stories or programming errors. In such cases the time-limited sprints of the Scrum model are of no appreciable use, but Scrum's daily meetings and other practices can be applied, depending on the team and the situation at hand. Visualization of the work stages and limitations for simultaneous unfinished user stories and defects are familiar from the Kanban model. Using these methods, the team's workflow is directed in a way that allows for minimum completion time for each user story or programming error, and on the other hand ensures each team member is constantly employed.[[25]](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scrum_(software_development)#cite_note-25)

To illustrate each stage of work, teams working in the same space often use post-it notes or a large whiteboard.[[26]](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scrum_(software_development)#cite_note-26) In the case of decentralized teams, stage-illustration software such as Assembla, ScrumWorks, Rational Team Concert or JIRA in combination with Jira Agile[[27]](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scrum_(software_development)#cite_note-27) can be used to visualize each team's user stories, defects and tasks divided into separate phases.

In their simplest, the tasks or usage stories are categorized into the work stages:

  • Unstarted
  • Ongoing
  • Completed

If desired, though, the teams can add more stages of work (such as "defined", "designed", "tested" or "delivered"). These additional phases can be of assistance if a certain part of the work becomes a bottleneck and the limiting values of the unfinished work cannot be raised. A more specific task division also makes it possible for employees to specialize in a certain phase of work.[[28]](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scrum_(software_development)#cite_note-scrumban-28)

There are no set limiting values for unfinished work. Instead, each team has to define them individually by trial and error; a value too small results in workers standing idle for lack of work, whereas values too high tend to accumulate large amounts of unfinished work, which in turn hinders completion times.[[29]](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scrum_(software_development)#cite_note-29) A rule of thumb worth bearing in mind is that no team member should have more than two simultaneous selected tasks, and that on the other hand not all team members should have two tasks simultaneously.[[28]](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scrum_(software_development)#cite_note-scrumban-28)

The major differences between Scrum and Kanban are derived from the fact that, in Scrum, work is divided into sprints that last a certain amount of time, whereas in Kanban the workflow is continuous. This is visible in work stage tables, which in Scrum are emptied after each sprint. In Kanban all tasks are marked on the same table. Scrum focuses on teams with multifaceted know-how, whereas Kanban makes specialized, functional teams possible.[[30]](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scrum_(software_development)#cite_note-30)

Since Scrum-ban is such a new development model, there is not much reference material. Kanban, on the other hand, has been applied by Microsoft and Corbis.[[31]](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scrum_(software_development)#cite_note-31)

Providing increased access to experts

requires continuous opportunities for gathering exchanging,and interpreting information.

Team members from diverse backgrounds often interpret a group’s goals differently.

Tools[edit&action=edit§ion=17)]

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challengedand removed(February 2012)

Tools that support Scrum include:

  • Agilo for Trac - FOSS & Proprietary (Pro) Variants.
  • Assembla - Proprietary.
  • codeBeamer - Proprietary.
  • IBM Rational Team Concert - Proprietary / free of charge for Open Source, Academic and Small Teams (<10).
  • iceScrum - FOSS & Proprietary (Pro) Variants.
  • JIRA using Jira Agile[[Note 1]](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scrum_(software_development)#cite_note-horizontal-32) plugin[[32]](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scrum_(software_development)#cite_note-33) - Proprietary / possibly free of charge for Open Source, Academic?
  • Kanbanery - Proprietary / free of charge for Open Source, Academic and Small Teams (<3).
  • Kanban Tool - Proprietary.
  • Microsoft Visual Studio 2010/2012, Team Foundation Server 2010/2012, Team Foundation Service - Proprietary.
  • OnTime, by Axosoft - Proprietary.
  • Pivotal Tracker - Some tools free of charge?
  • Redmine and ChiliProject, with a plug-in (several are available) - FOSS.
  • ScrumHalf, by GPE - Proprietary.
  • Trello - Free of charge on-line.
  • ServiceNow - Proprietary, via supported plugin
  • YouTrack, by Jetbrains[[Note 1]](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scrum_(software_development)#cite_note-horizontal-32) - Proprietary / free of charge for Open Source, Academic and Small Teams (<10).

Expanding labor markets by allowing firms to recruit and retain the best employees regardless of location

families should have the opportunity to be present for all discussion

This is one area where 4-D teams often have an advantage. In research we conducted at the World Bank, we found that teams benefited from having a blend of cosmopolitan and local members—that is, people who have lived in multiple countries and speak multiple languages, and people with deep roots in the area they’re working in. Cosmopolitan members bring technical knowledge and skills and expertise that apply in many situations, while locals bring country knowledge and insight into an area’s politics, culture, and tastes. In one of the bank’s teams, this combination proved critical to the success of a project upgrading an urban slum in West Africa. A local member pointed out that a microcredit scheme might be necessary to help residents pay for the new water and sanitation services planned by the team, while a cosmopolitan member shared valuable information about problems faced in trying to implement such programs in other countries. Taking both perspectives into account, the team came up with a more sustainable design for its project.

See also[edit&action=edit§ion=18)]

  • Kaizen
  • Extreme programming
  • Test-driven development
  • Feature-driven development
  • Lean
  • Scrum pattern
  • Kanban board

Opportunity to assign members to multiple teams

it should be convenient for the family to participate

Adding members is of course one way to ensure that a team has the requisite skills and diversity, but increased size comes with costs. Larger teams are more vulnerable to poor communication, fragmentation, and free riding (due to a lack of accountability). In the executive sessions we lead, we frequently hear managers lament that teams become bloated as global experts are pulled in and more members are recruited to increase buy-in from different locations, divisions, or functions. Team leaders must be vigilant about adding members only when necessary. The aim should be to include the minimum number—and no more. One manager told us that anytime she receives a request to add a team member, she asks what unique value that person will bring to the group and, in cases where the team is already at capacity, which current member will be released.

Notes[edit&action=edit§ion=19)]

  1. ^ Jump up to:***a***#cite_ref-horizontal32-0) [***b***]((software_development)#cite_ref-horizontal_32-1) Tools that also offer optional horizontal "swimlanes" or "pipelines" across the vertical columns of the board for different dimensions of work, such as sub-projects or features, allowing a scrum or Kanban board to be a two-dimensional matrix.
  1. challenge of virtual team :

the language used in communicating with families should be readily understood (e.g.,jargon-free,using the family's own words)

Team assignments should be designed with equal care. Not every task has to be highly creative or inspiring; many require a certain amount of drudgery. But leaders can make any task more motivating by ensuring that the team is responsible for a significant piece of work from beginning to end, that the team members have a lot of autonomy in managing that work, and that the team receives performance feedback on it.

Because virtual team members cannot benefit from social and nonverbal cues when getting to know each other, the process of developing cohesion is slowed.1

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